Publication Details

Kimberly Barchard, Leiszle Lapping-Carr, Shane Westfall, Andrea Fink-Armold, Santosh Balajee Banisetty, and David Feil-Seifer. "Measuring the Perceived Social Intelligence of Robots." In ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI), 9(4):1-29, Sep 2020. doi: 10.1145/3415139 ( pdf )

  • Keywords:
  • PSI


Robotic social intelligence is increasingly important. However, measures of human social intelligence omit basic skills, and robot-specific scales do not focus on social intelligence. We combined human robot interaction concepts of beliefs, desires, and intentions with psychology concepts of behaviors, cognitions, and emotions to create 20 Perceived Social Intelligence (PSI) Scales to comprehensively measure perceptions of robots with a wide range of embodiments and behaviors. Participants rated humanoid and non-humanoid robots interacting with people in five videos. Each scale had one factor and high internal consistency, indicating each measures a coherent construct. Scales capturing perceived social information processing skills (appearing to recognize, adapt to, and predict behaviors, cognitions, and emotions) and scales capturing perceived skills for identifying people (appearing to identify humans, individuals, and groups) correlated strongly with social competence and constituted the Mind and Behavior factors. Social presentation scales (appearing friendly, caring, helpful, trustworthy, and not rude, conceited, or hostile) relate more to Social Response to Robots Scales and Godspeed Indices, form a separate factor, and predict positive feelings about robots and wanting social interaction with them. For a comprehensive measure, researchers can use all PSI 20 scales for free. Alternatively, they can select the most relevant scales for their projects.

Author Details

Name: Kimberly Barchard
Phone: 702-895-0758
Status: Inactive

Name: Leiszle Lapping-Carr
Status: Inactive

Name: Shane Westfall
Status: Inactive

Name: Andrea Fink-Armold
Status: Inactive

Name: Santosh Balajee Banisetty
Status: Active

Name: David Feil-Seifer
Phone: (775) 784-6469
Status: Active

BibTex Reference

  title={Measuring the Perceived Social Intelligence of Robots},
  author={Kimberly Barchard and Leiszle Lapping-Carr and Shane Westfall and Andrea Fink-Armold and Santosh Balajee Banisetty and David Feil-Seifer},
  journal={ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI)},

HTML Reference

<span class="authors">Kimberly Barchard, Leiszle Lapping-Carr, Shane Westfall, Andrea Fink-Armold, Santosh Balajee Banisetty, and David Feil-Seifer</span>. <span class="title">"Measuring the Perceived Social Intelligence of Robots." </span> <span class="status">In</span> <span class="booktitle">ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI), </span><span class="volume">9</span><span class="number">(4)</span>:<span class="pg">1-29</span>, <span class="month">Sep</span> <span class="year">2020</span>. <span class="ending"></span> <span class="doi">doi: 10.1145/3415139</span>


CHS: Small: Socially-Aware Navigation, National Science Foundation PI: David Feil-Seifer, co-PI: Monica Nicolescu, Amount: $500,000, Sept. 1, 2017 - May 31, 2022

Infrastructure For Socially-Aware Navigation For Long-Term Human-Robot Interaction, NASA EPSCoR PI: David Feil-Seifer, co-PI: Kimberly Barchard, Amount: $30,416, July 1, 2017 - April 9, 2018